- 205 years ago (1812) born - Izmail Ivanovich Sreznevsky (died 1880), philologist-Slavic, ethnographer, academician. Academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1851). In the years 1855-1880 - Dean of the History and Philology Faculty of St. Petersburg University. Izmail Sreznevsky was born on June 1 (13), 1812 in Yaroslavl, in the family of the professor of the Department of the Literature of the Ancient Languages and the Russian eloquence of the Demidov School of Higher Sciences Ivan Evseevich, a Ryazan by birth. When Izmail was only a few weeks old, his father became a professor at Kharkov University and moved from Yaroslavl to Kharkov. Where he was also "loaded" with the post of inspector of state-cheated students ... The main role in the upbringing of the child belonged to his kind and intelligent mother, since his father died when the boy was only seven years old. Scientist and literary inclinations affected Sreznevsky very early: even as a child of 8-9 years he began to write poetry, and at the age of 16 already expressed in letters to his relatives the desire to devote himself to scholarly pursuits. After receiving primary and secondary education at home, under the guidance of his mother, Sreznevsky, 14 years old, entered Kharkov University at the Faculty of Ethical and Political Sciences and three years later received a candidate's degree by submitting a thesis "On Grievance." From the university professors of Sreznevsky (very few), a special influence was exerted on him: Gulak-Artemovsky, who became his "first leader in the study of Slavic antiquities and dialects", and Danilovich, who read Russian civil, criminal law and criminal proceedings in Russia. Proceedings: Slovak songs. Kharkov: Univ. Type., 1832; Experience of the essence and content of the theory in the political sciences: (The reasoning written for the steppe master of political history and statistics). Kharkov: Univ. Type., 1837; On the dialects of the Slavs. St. Petersburg, 1841; Report of the adjunct Sreznevsky, Mr. Minister of Public Education, from Vienna, from 8 (20) February 1841. St. Petersburg, 1841; Essay on book printing in Bulgaria. St. Petersburg, 1846; Sanctuaries and ceremonies of the pagan worship of the ancient Slavs, according to modern testimonies and legends. Kharkov: Univ. Type., 1846; Vuk Stefanovich Karadzic: Essay biography and bibliography. Moscow: type. August Seeds, qualification. 1846; Studies of the pagan worship of the ancient Slavs. St. Petersburg: type. K. Zhernakov, 1848; Thoughts on the history of the Russian language. 1849; A row from the 13th century: Issled. Prof. II Sreznevsky, d. Archaeol. Islands, with adn. Remarks prof. KA Nevolina St. Petersburg: type. Expeditions of state procurement. Papers, 1851; Rus Ugorskaya. An extract from the experience of the geography of the Russian language. ("Bulletin of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society", Part IV, 1852). St. Petersburg, 1852; Birth of the Slavs and other pagan peoples. Moscow: type. Alexandra Semyon, 1855. Zadonshchina Grand Duke Dmitry Ivanovich and his brother Vladimir Andreevich. St. Petersburg: type. Imp. Acad. Sciences: 1858; About the ancient Russian language. St. Petersburg, 1856. Walking for the three seas Afanasy Nikitin. In the years 1466-1472. : Readings of I. I. Sreznevsky St. Petersburg: type. Imp. Acad. Sciences, 1857; Charter of the Grand Duke Mstislav and his son Vsevolod Novgorod's St. George's Monastery. (1130). St. Petersburg: type. Imp. Acad. Sciences, 1860; On the study of the native language in general and especially in childhood. St. Petersburg, 1860-1861, 2 parts. Remarks on the epic size of the Slavic folk songs. St. Petersburg, 1861. Ancient monuments of Russian letters. St. Petersburg, 1861. From the review of Glagolitic monuments. St. Petersburg, 1861-1862. Russian caliki of ancient times. ("Notes of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, vol. 1, Book II, 1862). Ancient Russian calendar on monthly mines of the XI-XIII century. St. Petersburg, 1863; Ancient Russian books. Paleographic sketch. St. Petersburg, 1864. Ancient monuments of the letter and language of the south-western Slavs. (IX-XII centuries): A general time-based survey with notes on monuments, hitherto unknown. St. Petersburg: type. Imp. Acad. Sciences, 1865. Ancient Glagolitic monuments in comparison with Cyrillic monuments. St. Petersburg, 1866. Information and notes about little-known and unknown monuments. Volume 1. I-XL. St. Petersburg: type. Imp. Acad. Sciences, 1867. A survey of materials for the study of Slavic-Russian paleography. (Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1867, part 133). Ancient monuments of Russian writing and language. St. Petersburg, 1867-1876; The last part in the "Appendix" to XXXIV t., 1879. Ancient Slavic monuments of jus letter. St. Petersburg, 1868. Remarks on the formation of words from expressions. ("Collection of the Department of the Russian Language and Literature of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, vol. X, 1873). Tales of the Antichrist in the Slavonic translations. St. Petersburg, 1874. St. Sofia Tsargradskaya according to the description of the Russian pilgrim of the late 12th century: Ref. Acad. II Sreznevsky Kiev: Univ. Type., 1875; Paleographic observations on the monuments of Greek letters. ("Notes of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, vol. XXVIII, 1876, Appendix). Encyclopedic introduction to Slavonic philology. St. Petersburg, 1876-1877. Friulian Slavs. St. Petersburg, 1878. Remarks on the book by S. A. Gedeonov "Varangians and Rus." St. Petersburg: type. Acad. Sciences, 1878; Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language from written monuments. St. Petersburg, 1890-1912. Volume I. A - By the year 1893. Volume II. LR in 1902. Volume III. Р -Ѩ (iotirovannyj yus small) and additions 1912 year. On the study of the native language: in general and especially in childhood / from the conversations of II Sreznevsky; Reissues: Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language from written monuments. In three volumes. Stereotype edition. - M., 1958. Dictionary of Old Russian. In three volumes, in six books. Reprint edition. - Moscow: The Book, 1989. - 5237 p. - ISBN 5-212-00135-8. Materials for the Dictionary of the Old Russian Language. In three volumes. Reprint edition. - M .: Sign, 2003. - ISBN 5-94457-094-6, ISBN 5-94457-095-4, ISBN 5-94457-096-2. Alexander Ivanovich Turgenev. Some reminiscences about him. 1785-1845. // Russian Antiquity, 1875. - T. 12. - No. 3. - P. 555-564; № 4. - P. 739-749. Travel letters Izmail Ivanovich Sreznevsky from the Slavic lands: 1839-1842 (to EI Sreznevskaya). St. Petersburg: type. SN Khudekova, 1895.
- Abashnik Vladimir Alekseevich. GS Skovoroda and German philosophy in the creative work and teaching of II Sreznevsky in Kharkov // Abashnik VA Kharkov University Philosophy (1804-1920): in 2 volumes T.1. 1804-1850. - Kharkov: BURUN and K, 2014. - P. 538-552
- II Sreznevsky and Russian Historical Linguistics: To the 200th anniversary of the birth of II Sreznevsky: a collection of articles of the International Scientific Conference, September 26-28, 2012 / otv. Ed. IM Sheina, OV Nikitin; Stress. State. Un-t them. S. A. Yesenin. - Ryazan, 2012. - 392 p.
- 152 years ago born 1865 - William Yeats (died 1939), Irish poet and playwright, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature of 1923. Early works of Yeats are imbued with motifs of Celtic folklore and are characterized by an unromantic style, noticeably the influence of occultism. A number of works (including the play "Kathleen, daughter of Holine" are not alien to the political and national trends. His first significant work, The Island of Statues, is a fantastic poem that never was reprinted during the author's lifetime and was not included in the collection of poems, since it was too long, according to the author. The first collection of his poems, The Wanderings of Oisin, was published in 1889. The book is full of incomprehensible Celtic names and unusual repetitions, and the rhythm of verses changes in all three sections. The book is written on the basis of Irish mythology, and also has the influence of the works of Samuel Ferguson and the poets of the Pre-Raphaelites. The poet took two years to write this work. Its theme is the circulation of life contemplative to active life. In the same year he published his book on the folklore of Ireland, "Magic and Folk Tales", with notes compiled by Yeats on the basis of his own research in western Ireland. During this period, the author was especially fond of poetic dramas, the result was the drama "The Countess Kathleen", written in verse, 1892. This drama tells about the self-sacrifice of the Irish countess for the sake of saving from the peasants' hunger. In the collection "In the Seven Woods", 1903 included poems written primarily on themes from the Irish epic. It is noteworthy that starting from this collection, the transition from pompous forms to a more conversational style is traced. His other most important works are: "The Celtic Twilight", 1893, a collection of articles on Irish folklore; "The Land of Hearts Desire", a play in verse (1894); "A Book of Irish Verses" (1895), an anthology of Irish ballads; Poems, 1895; "The Secret Rose", 1897, a collection of fairy tales, original and converted from folk Irish, written in a highly elegant prose; "The Wind among the Reeds", 1899, poem; "The Shadowy waters" (1900), a poem, later remade into drama; "Ideas of Good and Evil" (1903), collection of articles; One of Yates' most famous poems "Easter 1916" is dedicated to the Easter uprising, with a number of executed or expelled leaders, Yates was personally connected, and accompanied by a refrain: "A terrible beauty is born." One of the central motifs of his lyrics is a tragic love for Maud Gonn, an Irish revolutionary. After the First World War and the civil war in Ireland, Yeats changed poetics; In his late lyrics - tragic historiosophical and cultural images, the stylistics is noticeably more complicated. In the collection "The Wild Swans in Coole" (1919), the author focuses on effective people whose will is able to change the world and show their personality. Fascinated by spiritualism, Yates wrote the book "Visions" ("Vision", 1925), which interprets historical and psychological moments from a mystical point of view. Yates wrote in the symbolist style, using indirect symbols and symbolic structures. The words that Yates uses aside from a particular significance are also abstract thoughts that seem more important. The use of symbols is always of a physical nature, which represents both a direct and another, non-material, timeless concept. At a time when modernists used free versification, Yeats adhered to traditional forms. To this middle period of his work belong "Responsibilities" and "The Green Helmet". Poetry of the late period has a more personal character, and poetry of the last 20 years of life mentions the children of the poet and even there are thoughts about his aging. One of the poems of this period is "The Circus Animals' Desertion". The most significant collections of poetry, beginning in 1910, are The Green Helmet (1910) and Responsibilities (1914). Collections The Tower (The Tower, 1928), The Winding Stair (1929), and New Poems (1938) include the strongest images in 20th-century poetry. And are marked by the author's great skill, his broad imagination.
- Ryapolova V.A.U. B. Yeats and the Irish art culture. - Moscow: Nauka, 1985.
- Gorbunov, AN The Last Romantic. Poetry of William Butler Yeats. - Moscow: Progress-Tradition, 2015. - 400 p. - 500 copies
- 129 years ago (1888) born - Fernando Pessoa (died 1935), Portuguese poet, writer and playwright. Fernando Pessoa is a Portuguese bilingual poet, prose writer, playwright, translator, thinker, essayist, leader and undisputed authority in the circles of the Lisbon avant-garde, who became posthumous, from an unrecognized loner, a symbol of the Portuguese literature of modern times. His father, Joaquin de Seabra Pessoa, a native of Lisbon, served in the Ministry of Justice and was also a music critic in the newspaper Diário de Notícias. Childhood and adolescence Pessoa were marked by events that later influenced his life. In 1893, his father died of tuberculosis at the age of 43, when little Fernande was barely five years old. Pessoa's mother was forced to urgently sell some of the furniture and move with the children to a more modest home. During this period, the first heteronym of Pessoa - "Chevalier de Pas" (Chevalier de Pas) appears, which many years later the poet writes to his friend Adolfo Casale Monteiro (Carta de Fernando Pessoa para Adolfo Casais Monteiro). In the same year Pessoa creates his first poetic work - a short poem with a children's epigraph: My beloved mother (À Minha Querida Mamã). His mother marries a second time in 1895 for João Miguel Rosa, consul of Portugal in Durban (South Africa), where he moved with the children. In Durban, Pessoa will spend his childhood and part of his youth. Mother with the head goes into cares for the husband and children from the second marriage, and Fernando remains left to himself. The boy spends a lot of time alone and thinking. The future poet has, from his childhood, shown great ability for literary creation. In Durban, he has access to English literature and authors such as Shakespeare, Edgar Poe, John Milton, Lord Byron, John Keats, Percy Shelley, Alfred Tennyson. English played a huge role in the life of Pessoa, in English written part of his poetic heritage. Pessoa also translated English-speaking poets. In the younger school, Pessoa learns very well and goes through a five-year course in three years; in 1899, he entered a secondary school in Durban, where he studied for three years. Pessoa was one of the best students in the group. In these years he chooses the pseudonym Alexander Search, on whose behalf he writes letters to himself. In 1901 Pessoa writes his first poems in English and travels with his family to Portugal, where his relatives live. At this time trying to write a novel in English. Upon his return to Africa, he enters the School of Commerce. The study takes place in the evenings, and in the afternoon Pessoa devotes himself to humanitarian disciplines. In 1903, receives the honorable award of Queen Victoria for the best essay. Pessoa reads the classics of English and Latin literature a lot, writes poetry and prose in English. His heteronyms appear Charles Robert Anon and GMF. Lecher. In 1905, the young Pessoa returned to Portugal and entered the Philological Faculty of the University of Lisbon. At that time Pessoa lived in a cramped apartment with his grandmother and aunt in Lisbon. After completing her first year of studies, Pessoa leaves the university, studies and studies the works of the greatest Portuguese writers, enjoying especially the writings of Cesarive Verde and the sermons of Padre Antonio Vieira. Soon, in 1907, his grandmother died, leaving him a small inheritance. With this money Pessoa opens a small printing house, which is destined to burn out soon. In 1908 Pessoa was arranged as a translator of business correspondence, which was conducted mainly in English. These translations the poet will be engaged all his life. If there is a desire, Pessoa could earn good money by translating correspondence. However, an ambitious novice poet and writer settled in several firms with a free work schedule to spend more time studying literature. In 1912 Pessoa began to write an essay and appears as a literary critic in the magazine "Bagia" with the article "New Portuguese Poetry", followed by his other articles. Later, along with his friend Mario de Sa Carneiro, Pessoa participates in the publication of the journal Orpheus. For two years (1914-1916) Pessoa acted as a theorist of post-symbolism and became the pioneer of three new trends of Portuguese modernism: paulism, sensationalism and intersectionism, whose ideas were embodied by the group of authors of the journal Orpheus (1915). The writer died on November 30, 1935 at the age of 47 in Lisbon. The last thing the poet wrote before his death is the phrase in English: "I do not know what tomorrow will bring ...". In 1985, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the death of the remains of Pessoa, they were reburied in the famous Jeromeimos monastery in Lisbon. On the tombstone obelisk of the poet the stanzas of his three main heteronims are broken: Albertu Cairo, Elvar de Kampusch and Ricardo Reis. "If anyone after my death wishes. Write my biography - it will be very easy. There are two main dates - my birth and death. Between these dates - all my deeds and all my days are the rest." 06/13/2017 (Translation by A. Tuleshov). Original text (Portuguese) " Se depois de eu morrer, quiserem escrever a minha biografia, Não há nada mais simples. Tem só duas datas — a da minha nascença e a da minha morte. Entre uma e outra todos os dias são meus." - Fernando Pessoa (Albert Cairo heteronym). "Separate poems": "If after my death", the first publication in the journal "Athena", No. 5, Lisbon, February 1925.
- Monteiro, George Portuguese Studies : Modern Humanities Research Association. — 1989. — Vol. 5. — P. 71–80.
- Ryauzova EA Pesoa // Short Literary Encyclopedia / Ch. Ed. A. A. Surkov. - Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1962-1978.
- 124 years ago (1893) - Dorothy L. Sayers (died 1957), an English writer. Dorothy Leigh Sayers - English writer, philologist, playwright and translator. In Kazakstan and Russian-speaking countries she is most known for detective novels. She was one of the founders of the British Detective Club. Born in Oxford in the family of an Anglican priest, rector of the cathedral singing school at the Church of Christ (or Christ Church), the Reverend Henry Sayers (died 1928). She received primary education at the private school of Godolphin, in Salisbury, Wiltshire, then at Samerville College, Oxford. In 1915, she graduated from college with a bachelor's degree in French, and in 1920 received a master's degree, thus becoming one of the first women awarded a degree in Oxford. At the end of the College, Dorothy Sayers worked as a proofreader at the University of Blackwell publishing for a while, then taught at Ecole de Roche in Normandy. In 1922 to 1929 she worked at the London advertising agency Bensons as the author of promotional texts. Literary career Dorothy Sayers began in 1916 a publication of a collection of poems called "Op I". In 1923 she published her first detective novel called "Whose Body?", In which for the first time appears the main character of her eleven detective novels and many stories, aristocrat and detective-amateur, Lord Peter Wimsey. The novel brought her success, and in the twenties it was followed by "Clouds of Witness" (1926), "The Unnatural Death" (1927), "The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club" (1928). In terms of personal life, the twenties were a period of turbulence for Dorothy Sayers, which she later reluctantly recalled. In 1922, she got carried away by a certain Bill White, a car salesman, from whom in 1924 she was born an illegitimate son, John Anthony (died 1984). Given the mores of the era, the birth of the child was kept secret, in addition, Dorothy did not want to overshadow the old age of parents, which, probably, the daughter's behavior would disappoint. John Anthony was entrusted to the custody of Dorothy's cousin, Ivy Shrimpton. Dorothy Sayers for a long time supported her son financially, which served her work at Bensons and the growing financial success of her books. In 1926, Dorothy Sayers married Oswald Arthur Fleming - a journalist, a former officer and a divorced father of two children. Later they adopted John Anthony, who, however, did not live under the same roof with foster parents. It is also known that Dorothy Sayers refused to admit her biological motherhood all her life. By 1929, her financial situation had become so strong that she was able to leave work at Bensons and devote all her time to literary creation. At the same time, teaming up with writers like Agatha Christie, Gilbert Keith Chesterton and Ronald Knox, Dorothy Sayers became one of the founders of the Detective Club, whose members regularly met to discuss topics related to detective prose. Detective novels of the 1930s. Reflect many of Dorothy Sayers' personal experiences. In 1930, "Strong Poison" appeared, in which the main female character first appeared for a long time in the novels Sayers, the novelist of detective novels Harriet Wayne, whose difficult relations with Lord Peter Wimsey constitute the emotional background of several later novels: "Have His Carcase" (1932) ), "Gaudy Night" (1935), and "Busman's Honeymoon" (1937). Many critics considered Miss Wayne an alter ego of the author, and Lord Peter - the embodiment of the "ideal man" that Dorothy Sayers represented him. The novels of "Wimsey-Wayne" are distinguished not only by deliberate intrigue, but also by closer attention to the context of the events taking place and to the inner world of the characters. The same can be said of the novels of the thirties, in which Harriet Wayne does not appear: Murder Must Advertise (1933), Hangman's Holiday (1933), The Nine Tailors (1934), and others. One of the novels with the lord Peter Wimsey, "Thrones, Dominations" was postponed by Sayers in 1938 and completed only in 1998 by writer Jill Paton Walsh. Another detective cycle, created by Dorothy Sayers in the thirties, consists of eleven stories, in which the main character is the traveling salesman and amateur detective Montague Egg. In co-authorship with Robert Justes Sayers also wrote the only novel without Lord Peter Wimsey - The Documents in the Case (1930). In the thirties, Dorothy Sayers also turned to drama. "Spoiled honeymoon" was originally a play whose premiere took place in December 1936. It is the only detective play Sayers; The subtitle to it was: "A lyrical drama with detective digressions," since the main theme of the play is the relationship between Lord Peter Wimsey and Harriet Wayne, and this subject is clearly subordinated to detective intrigue. Only afterwards the BBC channeled the films for the most part of Detective novels Sayers. The dramaturgy of Dorothy Sayers is largely based on her religious views. She was well acquainted with the circle of inklings, and connected with personal friendship with many of her members, she was an active parishioner and belonged to the Anglican Church. In 1937, during the Canterbury Festival, the first religious play Sayers "The Zeal of Thy House" was staged. It was followed by six more plays, the last of which is called The Emperor Constantine, (1951). Special notoriety Dorothy Sayers brought a series of twelve radio plays called The Man Born to be King. The cycle was ordered and delivered to the BBC in 1941-1942, despite a flurry of criticism, attacked the author from all sides: atheists considered the play as Christian propaganda, whereas Christians claimed that to entrust the role of Christ to the actor - blasphemy. In addition, many were disturbed and confused by the fact that the heroes of these plays, including Christ, spoke common English, while most of the public were accustomed to listening and reading the Gospels in the translation of the King James Bible, in the language of the sublime and literary. This was done by Sayers consciously, since she believed that today the perception of the Gospels is hindered by the deceptive "familiarity" of speeches, events and characters, and that the task of the Christian play on evangelical themes is to bring them as close as possible to the viewer or listener. Despite the criticism, or thanks to her, the cycle turned out to be a success. Archbishop of Canterbury, William Temple considered the plays Sayers "one of the most powerful tools ever put into the hands of the Church." Like many inclusions, Dorothy Sayers believed that preaching the Gospel is the duty of a Christian writer in the modern world. In April 1938, the editor-in-chief of the Sunday Times gave her the opportunity to write an article for the release that was due on Palm Sunday. So there was an article called "The Greatest Drama Ever Staged is the Official Creed of Christendom". Another article, "The Dogma is the Drama" was published the same month in "St. Martin's Review. " Thus, the beginning of Dorothy Sayers' many years of activity in the field of Christian apologetics and the popularization of theology was laid. In 1940, the publisher Sayers, Victor Golants invited her to write an essay on a military topic. The writer responded with a 152-page book called "Begin Here". This book and the books that followed it in the post-war period give an idea of Sayers' Christian worldview. One of the most famous is "The Mind of the Maker" (1941), where an analogy is drawn between the human and divine creative process. Sayers also wrote a lot on education, since education, in her opinion, is the cornerstone of a critical attitude toward reality. Among her other apologetic works are "Lord, I Thank Thee" (1943), "Unpopular Opinions" (1946), "Creed or Chaos? And Other Essays in Popular Theology "(1947). In the forties and fifties, Dorothy Sayers also traveled extensively, lecturing at university audiences, and actively participated in the life of her London parish, St. Thomas-St. Anna, whose church elder she became in 1952. During this period, the center of her interests was academic and translation activity. In 1950, Sayers received her doctorate in philology (Litt.D) from the University of Durham. Her translations include Tristan in Brittany, Being Fragments of the Romance of Tristan, Written in the Twelfth Century by Thomas the Anglo-Norman, and The Song of Roland (1957). Her main translation work was undoubtedly the translation of Dante's Divine Comedy. In 1949 the translation of "Hell" was published, in 1955 "Purgatory" was published. The work caused a variety of, at times diametrically opposite assessments. Many considered this translation too loose, not close enough to the original text. Others noted the literary qualities of translation, bringing the text closer to the perception of the modern reader. Anyway, the text was published in the publishing house "Penguin" and repeatedly reprinted. The number of its readers is estimated at two million. On December 17, 1957, a sudden death from heart failure interrupted Sayers' work on the translation of "Paradise." Later this translation was completed by her colleague and girlfriend Barbara Reynolds.
- Barbara Reynolds, Dorothy L. Sayers: Her life and soul (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1995).
- Mary Brian Durkin, Dorothy L. Sayers (Twayne Publishers, Boston, 1980).
- Catherine Kenney, The Remarkable Case of Dorothy L. Sayers (The Kent State University Press, 1990).
- Auden, W. H., 1962. The Dyer’s Hand, and Other Essays
- Gilbert, Colleen B., 1978. A Bibliography of the Works of Dorothy L. Sayers
- 93 years ago (1924) the first congress of All Kazak Scientists of Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic began its work in Orynbor (Orenburg is first capital of Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic untill 1925. The mere fact of the existence of the Kazak Autonomous Republic forced the Soviet government in 1924 to go on artificial creation in Central Asia of other national republics in opposition to the Kazak one. That was still unrecognized, but the true historical role and the mission of the Kazak Republic and to other modern national states of Central Asia. Now city and surrounding region is situated in the territory of Russian Federation. In 1925 the Orenburg region was transferred to the RSFSR, thanks to which the Tatar and Bashkir ASSR were territorially separated from the KazASSR, since the Soviet authorities feared the re-creation of the great Turkic state no less than the colonial imperial empire.). In the meeting that was held until June 18, it was decided to collect and study Kazak folklore.
- 70 years ago (1947) was born ORAZALIN Nurlan Mirkassimuly - a poet, writer and member of the National Commission for the implementation of the program of modernization of public consciousness under the President of the Republic of Kazakstan. He was born in Alma-Ata region. He graduated from the Kazak State University, a s a teacher of the Kazak language and literature (1970). Work experience: literary employee, senior literary officer of the newspaper "Kazakstan pioneers" (1970-1972); Inspector, senior methodologist, member of the repertory and editorial board of the Ministry of Culture of the Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic (1972-1984); Director of the Republican Puppet Theater of the Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic (1984-1986); Secretary, first secretary of the Union of Theater Workers of Kazakstan (1986-1990); Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakstan on National Policy, Development of Culture and Language (1990-1993); Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the development of science and public education (1991); Chief editor of the newspaper "Egemen Kazakstan" (1993-1996); First secretary of the Writers' Union of Kazakstan (1996-2002); Chairman of the Board of the Writers' Union of Kazakstan (2002-2013); Deputy of the Senate of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakstan, member of the Committee on Socio-Cultural Development and Science (2013-2016). In his position - since April 2017. He was awarded the order "Kermet" (2005), "Parasat" (2010); and other medals. Honored Worker of the Republic of Kazakstan (1998); Laureate of the State Prize of Kazakstan for the collection of poems "Farewell to the Century" (2002); Honorary citizen of Almaty and Almaty region. Scientific, literary works, publications: The author of the books The Restless Heart (1977), The Spring Sings (1982), The Seventh Continent (1988), The Spring Frosts (1997), The Swirling Time (2000), The Night by the Candlelight 1977), "Stone deer" (1979), "The Legend of the White Bird" (1981), "The Last Day of Spring" (1983), "The Revenge" (1984), "The Dashing Godina" (1979-1997, O. Auezov) and other works. Military service, military and special ranks, class ranks: Senior lieutenant of the reserve.
- Historical figures. Cognitive public edition. School-aged students and the public. Compiled by: Togyzbaev B. Sujikova A. - Almaty. "Almatykit Publishing House", 2009
- Kazakh literature. Encyclopedic Reference. - Almaty: "Aruna Ltd." LLP, 2010.
- 64 years ago (1953) was born SATYBALDIEV Erlan Abenuly - writer and general director of JSC "Mektep Publishing House". A native of Almaty. He graduated from the Literary Institute named after Maxim Gorky. Work experience: worked as editor of the publishing house "Jazushy", head of the editorial board, head of the creative group of the publishing house "Jalyn"; Director of the Almaty branch of the joint venture Interbuk (1990-199); Director of LLP "Interbuk-Kazakstan" (1992-1995); Director of the publishing house "Ener" (1995-1996); President of the Republican Corporation "Television and Radio of Kazakstan" (1996-2001). In his position - since September 2001. He translated works of M.Magauin, S.Elubaev, S.Narymbetov, T.Nurmaganbetov into Russian. Member of the Writers' Union of Kazakstan, holder of the International Prize named after Jambyl. He was awarded a diploma of the Supreme Council of the Kazak Soviet Socialist Republic.
- Publishers and polygraphists of Kazakhstan. Reference. Almaty, "Bilim" publishing house. In 2005
- 19 years ago (1998) the Days of Culture of Kazakstan were held in Germany. The German audience was able to get acquainted with the Kazakh culture and art, which were presented at the gala concert of the folklore and ethnographic ensemble "Sazgen-Sazy" and the soloists Kaiyrzhan Zholdybayev, Nurzhamal Usenbayeva, Maira Mukhamedkyzy and many other stars. Kazak artists presented works by Dauletkerei, Ahmet and Gaziza Zhubanov, Nurgis Tlendiyev, Latif Hamidi, as well as works of European classics. Kazak stage masters presented the ballet "Bald singer" Eugene Jonesco ("La Cantatrice chauve", Eugène Ionesco). Organized photo gallery and exhibition of applied art of Kazakstan, where the world-famous find from the Issyk barrow "Golden Man", national ornaments and objects of everyday life of Kazaks were exposed, allowed visitors to get to know Kazakstan with its ancient rich traditions
- 5 years ago (2012) in Astana, in the National Academic Library of the Republic of Kazakstan, a presentation of the facsimile edition of the three-volume book by Mikhail Terentyev (1837-1909) entitled "The History of the Conquest of Central Asia with Maps and Plans" was published for the first time in 1906 in St. Petersburg. This edition is of enormous value for modern Kazakstan, because it describes the history, culture, way of life and other aspects of life of the peoples inhabiting the region as truthfully as possible. The original of the book is kept in the fund of rare books and manuscripts of National Academic Library of Republic of Kazakstan. The author of this book is the general of the royal army Mikhail Terentyev. He was not only a military man who participated in the Crimean War of 1853-1856, in the Samarkand expedition of 1867 and in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, but also as an orientalist and also as a military historian. Military historian Mikhail Terentyev became during the service in Central Asia. The Turkestan governor-general Konstantin von Kaufman instructed him to draw up a sketch of the history of the conquest of this region. But this work has remained unfinished. Subsequently, these materials formed the basis of his books "Russia and England in the Struggle for Markets" (St. Petersburg, 1875) and "Russia and England in Central Asia" (St. Petersburg, 1875). The main work of Mikhail Terentyev wrote, already being in retirement. This is "The History of the Conquest of Central Asia" in three volumes (St. Petersburg, 1903-1906). The book is supplied with a set of maps and drawings. When writing this work, Mikhail Terentyev relied only on materials from local archives, which began his life in 1847. "History of the conquest of Central Asia" took an important place in the study of the history of Kazakhstan and adjacent territories. The work was a serious contribution to the study of the causes and motives of Russia's advance to the East and, in particular, to Central Asia and Kazakhstan. This problem has occupied Russian science since the beginning of the 18th century. It remains difficult and controversial for today's historians of Kazakhstan. About this writes, for example, the researcher from Almaty K. Suteev in the article "Russian military historians of the nineteenth century. On the causes and motives of Russia's movement to the east (to Central Asia and Southern Kazakhstan). " Not surprisingly, many historians of the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-Soviet period addressed the "History of the Conquest of Central Asia". However, during the Soviet era, they called for a critical attitude to the work of Mikhail Terentyev, although they recognized his value as a joint work.
- 5 years ago (2012) in the National Archive of Kazakhstan opened a documentary exhibition "Ramіzder - tauelsіzіdіk belgіsі", dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the Republic of Kazakstan Law "On State Symbols of the Republic of Kazakstan". The exposition presents more than 150 documents that tell and clearly illustrate the history of Kazakstan's independence. They are taken from the departmental archives of the Administration of the President of the Republic of Kazakstan, the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakstan, the Office of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakstan, "National Democratic Party Nur Otan" and others. Based on the materials of the documents, we can trace the record of our statehood, the history of Kazakhstan's gaining independence and state symbols. "Throughout history, our country had different state symbols, whether in the Soviet era or in the times of the Kazakh Khanate. The current state symbols are our past, future, and the interconnection between them, - said the general director of the National Bank of Kazakhstan, Marat Absemetov, at the opening ceremony of the exposition in Astana. "The hovering golden eagle and the sun are our symbols of courage and courage, courage, which were transmitted from our ancestors." As you know, the state symbols of independent Kazakhstan were first approved on June 4, 1992. It was on this day that independent Kazakhstan gained its symbolism. This day will remain forever in the history of the country as the birthday of the new state symbolism. The Constitutional Law on State Symbols determines that "citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as persons who are on the territory of the Republic, must respect the state symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan."
- 4 years ago (2013) President of Kazakstan Nursultan Nazarbayev arrived with an official visit to the Republic of Uzbekistan. The head of state took part in the official opening ceremony of the new building of the Kazakh embassy in Uzbekistan, as well as the Abay monument in Tashkent. Nursultan Nazarbayev congratulated all those present on the opening of the monument to Abay, stressing that these events confirm the commitment of the two states to strengthening friendship and brotherhood. "Abai's poems, his words of edification and philosophical thoughts are the spiritual heritage of not only the Kazakh people, but the entire Islamic world. His works appeal to knowledge, diligence, justice and brotherhood. The Kazakh people perceive Abai as their spiritual teacher, a source of national revival. His works are truly immortal. With the passage of time, they are becoming more relevant, defining guidelines for social and cultural-spiritual life, "- N. Nazarbayev. "You can not clap your hands with one hand," this wise statement by the great poet and thinker Alisher Navoi accurately reflects today's atmosphere and the warmth of the relationship between us," the head of state said. Nursultan Nazarbayev noted that the poetic worldview of Abai was greatly influenced by the works of the great Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi, as well as the works of the outstanding thinkers of the East - Firdausi, Nizami, Fizuli. "In Uzbekistan, Abai is well known and highly regarded as a truly national poet, educator and humanist, who dedicated his whole life to chanting the high aspirations and aspirations of his people who fought for the triumph of good and justice. It is difficult to overestimate the enormous merits of Abai who, in his immortal works, vividly and fully reflected the mighty spiritual strength of the Kazakh people, his most noble qualities, "said first president of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov and expressed confidence that in the future with the support of Nursultan Nazarbayev in Astana a monument of Alisher Navoi will also be erected.
by Akhan Tuleshov
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