In the most archaic layers of Kazakh folklore the world was inhabited by man as well as spirits, the latter being both benevolent and malevolent. To interact with this mysterious world, intermediaries were needed, i.e. people who had not only knowledge of this world, but also special personal qualities. The role of such intermediaries was played by shamans, known as “baqsï” among Kazakhs. In Kazakh folklore we can find a great many motifs related to the pre-Islamic beliefs and to shamanism. Since Kazakh written literature developed along the lines of oral tradition, it inherited this folklore’s tradition. According to researches on mythology the mythical archetypes cannot disappear, and one of the missions of literature research is their discovery and detection in written literature.
The aim of this paper to analyse some special features of T. Abdikakimuly’s poetical works. He represents modern Kazakh poetry with books of poems «Ақшам хаттары» (1993), «Рауан» (2000), «Қас сақ аңқымасы» (2001), which are highly acclaimed among literary authors. His works are characterized by an original outlook and distinctive literary manner.
In T. Abdikakimuly’s work we encounter the key elements of a mythopoetic belief system and mindset. The shaman archetype, and the images and symbols related to the mysterious character of shamans are essential in T. Abdikakimuly’s works. In one of his poems the lyrical hero admits that he is a baqsї: «Менікі де көрген күні бақсының...» - “My life is similar to that of a baqsї ”. It has both exterior and interior qualities that are inherent in a baqsı: his inextricable link to nature; the knowledge of the language of herbs, fire, fish, and birds; the immense power of his character.
The poet makes frequent use of various supernatural creatures such as ǰinn, peri, diyu, albastï and taǰal in their different zoomorphic and anthropomorphic forms to express different abstract ideas. As to the portrayal of the persona’s monomyph, multiple symbols and images reflecting the national mentality of Kazakh mythological belief system are utilized.
Key words: mythology, mythopoetic belief system, shaman archetype, Kazakh folklore, symbols and images, national mentality, Kazakh poetry
One of the beliefs and rites existing in pre-Islamic Central Asia, and in Kazakhstan in particular (Tengrism, Zoroastrianism, and such ancient religious movements as animism, fetishism, totemism etc), was shamanism which did not fall out of practice even after the spread of Islam. Features of shamanism are still preserved in the culture of the peoples who inhabit this region up to the present day.
Nature and man were closely intertwined in the most archaic layers of Kazakh folklore. Their world was inhabited by man as well as by spirits, the latter being both benevolent and malevolent. As G.N. Snesarev notes in his work on shamanism, «In order to interact with this mysterious world, intermediaries were needed, i.e. people who had not only attained the knowledge of this world, but also had special personal qualities - of the so-called capability not to be submitted to the spirit world but instead to submit it to his own will. The role of such intermediaries was fulfilled by shamans» (Snesarev 1969, 43). Among the Kazakh shaman is called “baqsї” while among the Kyrgyz “baqšї”. The principal function of the shaman was the curing of people possessed by spirits, using various magic ceremonies.
One of the distinctive features of Central Asian shamanism – unlike Siberian shamanism – is its close connection to art in the proper sense of the word. The ritual songs of Kazakh shamans, called baqsï sarïnï, are characterised by rich imagery and allegory while their rhythmical system displaays a unique poetic quality. Shamans, with their ritual songs, were similar to poets called „akїns” and singers called “ǰїršї”. It stands to reason that the aim of these songs was not the establishment of aesthetics, but healing. As many of the people among whom shamans lived had great poetic talent, these ritual songs became poetic works of a great value. Besides, “unlike Siberian shamans who use various drums during their shamanistic rituals, Kazakh baqsïs, use the musical instrument known as the qobїz – the invention of Korkyt Ata” (Orynbenkov 2013, 29). The qobїz is a bowed stringed instrument specifically associated with songs that induce shamanic trance […] Stories of magical events associated with shamanic music were recorded in early ethnographies. Once story features Qoylıbay Baqsї, who hung his magical qobїz on a tree and challenged some cocky young men on horseback to beat his instrument in a race. The tree, empowered by the qobız, was lifted by its roots by a whirlwind and won the race, leaving the riders in a cloud of dust (Privrtasky, Bruge G. with reference to Valikhanov in Shamanism, 2004, 573). «Kazakh baqsїs were a talented people who had fathomed the mysteries of life. They had the abilities of magic power, eloquence, music-making, and undeniable medical methods» (Orynbekov 2013, 31). In other words, shamanism was not only the belief coupled with the ritual performance having healing as its end, but also had much in common with art.
The Kazakhs often likened the talent of a ǰїrau or an aqїn to the power of a healer – the baqsï – by. It is widely believed among common people that transcendental capacity manifests itself in a human being in the form of a poetic talent. As the folk belief has it, poet-storytellers, like shamans, also obtained their power from supernatural forces. “The gift of being a shaman was often passed down from the father to son. The conditions under which a young man was to receive this magic art were specific: a boy shepherd would fall asleep under a tree, a saint would appear in his dreams who would give him the qobїz or dombїra and tell him that he was obliged to sing songs. From this moment on the shepherd’s life was to change radically: he would become a singer and story-teller. If he had had acute nervous disorder before that, it was a good omen from providence which gave him the gift of a baqsї” (Orynbekov 2013, 27). Related to this practice, also existing among the Kyrgyz, M. Auezov relates that the dzhomokchu (a bard or singer of the epic poem “Manas”) who after having seen the spirit of Manas in their dreams, began singing the epic of Manas. And in the land of Abay, the people of tribe Tobїqtї (boasted that there had been no baqsїs or poets among his ancestors, i.e. boasted about their absence, not their presence, as there were a great many of them.
In Kazakh folklore we can find a great many motifs related to the pre-Islamic beliefs and to shamanism Since Kazakh written literature developed along the lines of oral tradition, it inherited this folklore’s tradition. It is commonly known that mythical archetypes cannot disappear, and one of the missions of literature research is their discovery and detection in written literature (Meletinsky 1976, 76). In written literature the image of a baqsї received its full representation in the poem “Qoylїbay’s qobїz” by Magzhan Zhumabaev, the poet of the beginning of the 20th century. The poem is about the real shaman named Qoylїbay whose image became a theme in the works of such scholars as A.A. Divaev and Sh. Ualikhanov. Qoylїbay was of the Nayman tribe, honored as a “the shaman of shamans” (Orynbekov 2013, 34). The story of the qobїz competing with the horses, which we have mentioned above, was the main plot of this poem.
However, the role of the shaman archetype as a lyrical hero (the image of a poet in poetry) is quite a rare feature of Kazakh poetry. In this article we make an attempt to analyze some particular features of T. Abdikakimuly’s poetic works. The poet was born in 1952 and is a prominent representative of contemporary Kazakh poets. He is the author of the books of poems «Ақшам хаттары» (1993), «Рауан» (2000), «Қас сақ аңқымасы» (2001), which are highly acclaimed among literary authors. His works are characterized by an original outlook and distinctive literary manner. In T. Abdikakimuly’s work we encounter the key elements of a mythopoetic belief system and mindset.
We agree with E.M. Meletinsky that “the mythological archetypes cannot disappear. One of the missions of literature research is their uncovering” (Meletinsky 1976, 76).
The shaman archetype, and the images and symbols related to the mysterious character of shamans are essential in T. Abdikakimuly’s works. In one of his poems the lyrical hero admits that he is a baqsї: «Менікі де көрген күні бақсының...» - “My life is similar to that of a baqsї ”.
ақыры, мен дауасыз боп алдым...
Күйінішке күлкі қосып ішемін,
Күйін ойнап мазақтың.
Менің қобыз көңілімнің ішегі
қыл көпірі тозақтың.
While constantly in a state of extasy,
I have lost my healing power.
Mixed with laughter, I drink discontent
and play the music of shame.
The string of my soul, the kobyz,
Is a narrow bridge to Hell.
As I assume, here again we can see a baqsї portrayed as exhausted by the incessant rapture of the ritual performance while disappointed and ashamed of his helpless condition. The qobїz is no longer the savior, and his string is likened to the bridge leading him to Hell. The entire image is employed by Abdikakimuly to convey an idea of his impotence in his attempts to preserve the origins of national identification of his people, and shows his abyss of despair.
Various shamanism-related supernatural creatures such as ǰїnn, peri, dew, albastї and taǰal, in their multiple zoomorphic and anthropomorphic shapes, with whom the shaman interacts, are frequently employed by the poet to express an abstract idea.
1. ǰїnn (жын). In folk beliefs the ǰїnn disguised as humans is a rare feature. “When we think of the ǰїnn, we have in mind the creatures of small size which usually live in flocks. They almost swarm in their favourite areas like insects. It is not advisable for humans to enter these areas. The ǰїnn, these beings most hostile towards men, may do him harm” (Snesarev 1969, 33). In Islamic mythology, the ǰїnn are usually evil spirits. In Arabia they were known as early as in pre-Islamic era […]. According to Islamic tradition, the ǰїnn are sapient airy or fiery creatures made of a smokeless fire. The jinn are related to Iblis […]. In local folklore and beliefs they act as remnants of pre-Islamic mythological concepts” (Tokarev 1987, 374).
In T. Abdikakimuly’s work the ǰїnn plays a slightly different role, yet it is still of negative characteristics. Let us consider the extract from his poem «Боранды түнде» - “In a stormy night”:
Қап-қараңғы үрейдің арқасындай
Мына түннен азырақ қорқасың да.
Күлген сайын сырттағы күрең боран,
Жын жылайды пешіңнің қолқасында …
Киелі өлең өзекте өлтіріліп,
Ай жоғалар аспанда жер түгілі.
Жатыр неге қыңсылап сендік жүрек
Көз ашпаған бір мұңның бөлтірігі?
Сыртта боран булығып, …
Моп-момақан пешіңнің қолқасында.
You are a bit afraid of the night,
Like of the black back of fear.
Outside the storm is laughing
And the ǰїnn is crying by your fireside.…
The sacred verse dies in your soul,
Even the moon will disappear, let alone the earth.
Why is your heart – the wolf cub of grief
with still closed eyes – whimpering?
Outside the storm is nearly crying,
The ǰїnn is laughing by your fireside.
As we can see, the poet describes his sorrow-stricken emotional stateas those of the lyrical hero. It seems as if the storm bodes ill for the character of the poem (its anticipation causes fear and dread in him). The ǰїnn acts contradictory to the storm: when the storm is laughing, it is crying; when the storm is crying, it is laughing. The simultaneous laughter and crying (here they are equally formidable) of the ǰїnn and the storm aggravates the character’s emotional tension.
In the following poem “” the ǰїnn finds itself in the situation similar to the one considered above:
Жын көтерген айғайға жолықтым мен бейуақта,
Құлағымнан қобыз ойнап бердім мен …
Ымырт солай ырғағынан жаңылды.
When the night was falling I came across the ǰїnn’s noise
So I began playing the qobїz,
And the twilight went out of it’s own rhythm.
Because of the ǰїnn, the main character breaks the rhythm of time. The ǰїnn causes discord in nature. Using this device, the author conveys his state of his disturbed mind.
There were different types of ǰїnn: evil spirits (ǰїnn) that shamans exorcised out of the sick, and spirit helpers who were called upon during magic healing ceremonies. When describing the peculiarities of the genre of baqsї sarїnї (ritual songs of baqsї), Mukhtar Auyezov remarks: “Each baqsї has his own special ǰїnn whose name he mentions in his songs and which is only assigned to him” (Auyezov 1991, 41).
In his lines “I have already said that I am like a baqsї whose ǰїnns have all died” (Kazakh text…), T. Abdikakimuly meant to say that he has lost his helper spirits (the ǰїnn), i.e. he is in a state of exhaustion. In such a manner he conveys his spiritual crisis and his weakened state of mind.
“Albastї is a female demon affecting child-bearing and killing either the child or the mother” (Snesarev 1969, 32). It usually appears at the moment of childbirth. The beliefs of albastї exist in Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Karakalpak, Turkmen, Turkish, Tatar, Kumyk, Nogay, Balkar, Karachay, Uygur, Chuvash, and Tuvan cultures. The detailed description of the albastї and its representation in Kazakh folklore is to be found in S. Kaskabasov’s research paper “Khikaya”. In this work he notes that the word “albastї” also exists in the lexicon of such Caucasian peoples, as Dagestani, Adyghe, Nokhchiy, and Armenians. According to some scholars, the word “albastї” is used by the Udmurts and the Mari (Kaskabasov 2010, 6). S. Kaskabasov singles out the special features of this malevolent spirit in Kazakh folklore, among other varieties of albastї found in various peoples’ folklore.
The poet Abdikakimuly reexamines this image and introduces it in his poem as a demon guiding the woman along the wrong path. The main character of the poem, when disclosing his doubts about his lover’s loyalty says: «Албастының айтқанын орындапсың, Ай сәулесі бетіңді өртегенде...» - “It appears that when the moon was scorching your face you were doing what the albastї told you to do”.
„The image of this spirit is characterised by its dualism: a peri can be both benevolent and malevolent to mortals, by having a rather close relationship with them. The peri is mostly anthropomorphic. Frequently, it appears as a beautiful girl or boy, but it can also take on various forms of animals, birds, or flame. When emphasizing their evil nature they are referred to as “ǰїnn-peri”, thus intentionally equaating them with malevolent beings” (Snesaryov 1969, 28).
In T. Abdikakimuly’s work the peri is shown as an evil spirit, i.e. as the ǰїnn- peri. «Сенсіз қалдым жын-перілер кешкі астарын ішерде» - „I lost you when jinn peris set about to have an evening meal.” To some degree, evil spirits affect the main character’s separation from his lover.
The Dius (дию) belong to the class of the daevas. “Daevas are gigantic, mostly anthropomorphic spirits, possessing great strength” (Snesaryov 1969, 29). To depict the great element, the poet Abdikakimuly draws a parallel between the night and the Diu, the moon and its single eye of the Diu:
«Жалғыз көзі бозарып дию-түннің..» -
„The single eye of the night – a diu – is flashing blue.”
In Kazakh folklore, the “diu” is a one-eyed spirit similar to Greek Polyphemus. “Sometimes the Daeva have the shape of a Cyclops (common among the peoples living in Central Asia and Kazakhstan), […] and among the Turks living in the Volga region, they are frequently connected and used interchangably with the peri” (Tokarev 1987, 418).
Taǰal is a variation of the aǰdaha which has its origin in “Avesta” by Aži Dahāka. „Aǰdaha is a gigantic dragon with a body stretching for several kilometers, a fire-breathing mouth sucking in any man encountered on its way, its fiery eyes casting a light far ahead” (Snesaryov 1969, 31). The poet below refers to tajal in a specific way:
Мына Түн қандай суық қорқынышты,
Жүзінде жатқандайсың зор қылыштың.
Миымды бүре-бүре бұлты ажалдың,
Мың ластандым, мың тазардым.
Міне енді … Қала қара,
Ай сап-сары –
Сарғайып жалғыз тісі тұр тажалдың.
The night is so dreadful,
As if I were lying on a sword’s blade.
The dark clouds of death are pressing on my brain.
Thousands of times, together with others,
I have sunk into dirt and washed it off.
And now ... The city is black,
And the moon is more yellow than yellow,
As yellow as a single tooth of a tazhal.
(“The Night’s child”)
At first, the image of the moon as of a taǰal’s single tooth is drawn, and only later the metaphor expands and we discover that this evil being, the taǰal, is the night itself.
Мұның бәрі сен кеткен соң басталды.
Жерді қылғып, ішіп қойған аспанды
Тажал еді ол …
All this has begun after you left me.
This (doubt) was like a taǰal
That devoured Earth, and drank the sky.
His deeds (the devouring of the Earth, the drinking of the sky) are obvious characteristics of an aǰdaha. Doubt is depicted as a taǰal of immense strength. At the end of the poem the lyrical hero catches him and the image of doubt as of a dreadful taǰal transforms into a shriveled old woman with a man’s eyes, and no longer poses a threat, as it did at the beginning. With just one sneer the lyrical hero defeats him.
Ал керегім осы ма еді аңсаған,
Әлгім кәрі кемпір екен қаусаған.
Көзі бірақ еркектікі аларған.
Мен мырс еттім …
Ол зым-зия жоғалған.
Is this just what I have craved for?
He turned out to be just a very old woman
With a man’s eyes.
I sneered at him,
And he has gone for good.
The metamorphosis of doubt from a taǰal into a shriveled old woman is typical of mythological symbolic system, as these very metamorphoses (mythical transformations) are main elements of mythological mindset systems.
Based on this, we can draw the following conclusion: in T. Abdikakimuly’s works, the spirits like albastї, ǰїnn, peri, and taǰal appear when he deals with theme of love. Since the poet expresses deep emotion, his images are depicted in profoundly archaic terms.
Mythological mindset is very creative. In the poem below the poet creates a ray as the the source of human life. As Eliade notes: “Any myth narrating the origin of anything implies and expands on cosmogonic beliefs (Eliade 1994, 16).
Түн баласы түшкірініп жаратылды ақ сәуле!
… өткіздім де сол сәулені мөлдір сезім арқылы,
жеті түрлі ғажап сәулелердің жарқылын
айналама гүл өсті!
The child of night sneezed and the white ray was created.
Filtering the ray of light through my clear feelings
Out of my eyes I was beaming seven wonderful rays.
All around me has burst into blossom
The seven rays that the author has created are blue Yearning (көкшіл Зарық), white Conscience (аппақ Ождан), red Desire (қып қызыл Көн), yellow Satisfaction (сары Нысап), brown Goodness (қоңыр Қайыр), Fear and Joy both black and green (қарасы бар, жасылы бар: Үрейім мен Шаттығым). In the paragraph below I am going to examine the symbolic colour system employed by the poet, reflecting national spiritual values of Kazakhs. The poet has deliberately applied these colours to convey various abstract ideas. Conscience is white, i.e. clear (the Kazakh fixed expression „clearer than water, whiter than milk” referring to the clarity of conscience). Yearning is blue since blue is the colour of the sky, freedom, willpower, unbounded space, which has always been essential for nomads. Using blue colour, the poet purports to express his longing for freedom. Red is sometimes the colour of excess («әсіреқызыл» - “excessively red”) while the expression “red Desire” used by the poet suggests the insatiability of pleasures of the flesh. Satisfaction is yellow since yellow is the colour of grief in traditional common belief. Who is close to grief is satisfied with creature comforts and does not seek earthly indulgence. Goodness is brown since brown is the colour of kindness, harmlessness, compromise. A quiet, kind person is popularly called «Қойдан қоңыр», literally „browner than a sheep” (the sheep is the most quiet domestic animal). Fear is black since black is the colour of bad quality, but it is not always the case. In several cases, it conveys other connotations. For instance, “the black hearth” (қара шаңырақ) has the meaning of “the main parental home”. Also, the youngest son in the family – the heir – is referred to as “the black hearth” (қара шаңырақ). The expression “black word” is used to refer to the art of writing. Abay notes: «Қазақта қара сөзге дес бермедім», literally „among Kazakhs in the black word (in the art of writing – R.M.) there were no equals to me.” Also, fear is caused by ignorance, lack of knowledge and obscurity of mind. Joy is green. The poet used the expression “dark-green humming” – exultation of nature. In this manner, emotional and ethical system of colours of the Kazakhs’ spiritual life are conveyed.
және Қайыр қоңыры,
қарасы бар, жасылы бар
(Үрейім мен Шаттығым)”
The seven rays:
red Desire ,“
black and green
(Fear and Joy both)
This poem is a proof of the claim that “for archaic communities, life cannot be repaired, it can only be created anew through the return to its origin” (Eliade 1994, 18).
In another poem the lyrical hero, like a mythological one, is absolutely free in his actions:
Жазғы түннің етегінде ес жатқанда мөлдіреп,
Үкілер мен бөрілерді мен ұйқыға көндірем.
Үрген итті иесіне тастаймын да ысырып,
Ес үстінен екі көзді арлы-берлі ұшырып
Жатып алам жалғыз өзім аспан жаққа есінеп …
In a summer’s night, with clear consciousness
I will make owls and wolves go to sleep.
Leaving a barking dog to its owner,
Over consciousness looking at the entire world
I am lying alone, yawning at the sky.
The character looking at space is looking for his origin, thus his monomyth is created. “Every talent is compelled to transform the part of the world, only visible to him, into the whole world, and create his own mythology using that world’s information” (Shelling 1966, 54). While any myth is to some extent a story, a hero’s monomyth is the story of his own origin and life which is told by the hero with a mythological mindset.
Мен о баста жұлдыз құрты ем жұлдыздың …
Жасыл түкті көмей едім қып-қызыл.
Қанжарланып жыртқыш тісім өсіп шықты
жеті дауысты үрейден.
Маңдайыма қара сәулелі көз бітті
Ұлы түннің құрдымына қадалған.
At the beginning I was a stellar worm,
I was a throat covered with green hair.
Then predator’s teeth, like swords, grew
Out of seven-voiced fear.
A black eye has appeared on my forehead
Which has turned to the depth of the night.
The lyrical hero of this poem cannot be seen as human. His demonic features - predator’s teeth, an eye on his forehead - are evidence of this. This image evokes the taǰal with “fiery eyes casting a light ahead” mentioned above. The demonic hero’s deeds are also demonic images: (“Қуып жүріп періштемді күрең қарашықтармен, Қызғаныштың отыменен қырқып алып қанатын“ — “He is cutting an angel’s wings with the fire of his eyes”; “Қос көр қазып әр ақынның жолына, Пайғамбарды кәрі еменге керіп қойдым шегелеп!”— “He is digging two graves for each poet and crucifying the Prophet to an old oak”). The demonic hero is a hero torn between God and the Devil. Discord is a state caused by the loss of inner balance. The corruption of the character is shown in the following way:
Менің түнгі қонағым − бұл әлемде жоқ адам,
Ол ма, мен бе белгісіз қаймықпайтын алладан.
Қайсысы өзім екенін айыра алмай дал болам.
My night guest is not of this world.
It is not clear whether it’s me or him who’s not afraid of God.
I cannot tell which of the two I am.
One of the shaman’s main features is his inseparability from nature. The poet narrator lives surrounded by nature and also communes with it:
«Түні бойы үкі маған бал ашты» – “All night long an owl was telling me my fortunes”;
«Шөптің тілін, оттың тілі, балық тілін, құс тілін біліп алды» – “He has mastered the languages of grass, fire, fish, and birds”;
«Әлдеқайдан пайда болған сары маса тынысын сезе қойдым» – “At once I felt a mosquito’s breath that appeared out of nowhere”.
«Қызыл Айдың қызғылт сазын тыңдады» – “He listened to the Moon’s rosy melody”;
«Құла құмырсқа бара жатыр жүгіріп, Мұрты ұшында көне қала тозаңы» – “A spotty ant is running, bearing an ancient town’s dust on its antennae”.
«Тырналардың тырауына салқындап» – “Cooled by a crane’s calls.”
«Сөйлеп бүкіл жаратылыс түйсігімнің тілінде...» – “All nature speaking the language of my consciousness …” etc.
In this paper I have attempted to explore some features of T. Abdikakimuly’s writing that have specific mythologically based characteristics. I am led to offer a number of conclusions regarding Abdikakimuly’s works. Like any gifted poet, he has created his own solid poetical world where the archetype of the shaman are manifested: –the baqsї, together with his inherent qualities and attributes (the qobїz, his communion with the upper world and the spirits: of both malevolent and benevolent nature, his ability to fly, and his inseparability from nature), as well as the principal components of the mythopoetic mindset (cosmology, demonology, pantheism) are evident. In Kazakh poetry, it is in his works where the archetype of the shaman was upgraded to the status of the lyrical hero and became the core of his poetry. The archaic nature of the poetic devices employed in his work to convey lover’s conflict or patriotic ideas, intensifies the national idiosyncrasies of his work. It should also be mentioned that his poetry is often with the images and symbols relating to Islam. In other words, his writing is the reflection of the spiritual and religious development of the Kazakh nation. Nevertheless, this aspect of his work requires further research. In my opinion, it is the symbols and imagery related to the Kazakh’s pre-Islamic beliefs – to shamanism, to be precise – that are most typical and characteristic to his poetic work. The poet skillfully employs them to convey abstract ideas, which adds a unique figurativeness to his poetry.
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Abdikakimuly, T. (1993): Aqšam hattarï. Almaty, Zhalyn.
Auezov, M. (1991): Adebiet tarihy. Almaty, Ana tili.
Dumézil, G. (1986): Mítosz és eposz. (Trans. Judit Fridli) Budapest, Gondolat.
Eliade, M. (1994): Aspekty mifa. (Trans. V.Bolshakov) Moskva, Akademia.
http://yanko.lib.ru/books/sacra/eliade-aspektu_mifa.pdf (Last Acces: 30. December 2015)
Kaskabasov, S. (2010): Khikaya. Prostor Vol. 8, 122–132.
Meletinsky, E. М. (1976): Poetika mifa. Moskva, Nauka.
Molnár, Á. (ed) (2003): A sámánhit emlékei. Török népek. Budapest, Balassi Kiadó.
Orynbekov, M. S. (2013): Genezis religiznosti v Kazakhstane. Almaty, Institut Filosofii, Politologii i Religiovedenija KN MON RK.
http://iph.kz/doc/ru/556.pdf (Last acces: 30. December 2015)
Privratsky, B. G. (2004): Kazakh Shamanism. In: Walter, M. N. – Neumann Fridman, E. J. (eds) Shamanism. An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices. Santa Barbara–Denver–Oxford. 569–572.
Snesarev, G. P. (1969): Relikty domusulmanskih verovanii i obrjadov u uzbekov Horezma. Moskva, Nauka.
Shelling, F. W. J. (1966): Filosofia iskusstva. Moskva, Мysl’.
Tokarev, S. A. (1987): Mify narodov mira. Moskva, Sovetskaja enciklopedia.
 Kunanbaiuly Abay, great Kazakh poet from the second half of the XIX century, founder of Kazakh written literature from Eastern Kazakstan, Semey region.
 This tribe is one branch of the great Argїn tribe. Abay also belonged to the Tobїqtї tribe.
 The term „ lyrical hero” was coined by J. Tynyanov and elaborated by L. Ginzburg. It should be noted that the term does not necessarily correspond with the poet himself and is a general image.
 In folk belief Қылкөпір (Qïlköpir) stands for the bridge to Hell, as narrow as a hair, and which is made up of two words: қыл (qïl) –„ a hair”, and көпір (köpir) – „a bridge”. George Dumézil does not doubt the origin of this bridge leading to Hell lying in mazdaism. The Armenians call it „a narrow bridge” while the Georgians call it „the bridge as narrow as a hair”. The special feature of these logs- the hairs - is that the bridge appears wider when faced with the real man and narrower when faced with the sinner (Dumézil 1986, 423).
 In such cases, the Kazakhs believe that these diceases were caused by such supernatural creatures as ǰїnn, peri, albastї,mertü etc. (Divaev in Molnár 2003, 51).
 Tokarev S. A. (1987) Albastї. in Mify narodov mira. Moskva: Sovetskaja enciklopedia. 58.
 Kazakhs imagined Albastї both in human and animal shape and divided them into two groups: Sary-Al Basty (yellow) and Kara Albastї (black). The Sary Albastї is incredibly cunning. […] The Kara Albastї is far stronger and more dangerous than the Sary Albastї. Its quick approaching was believed impossible to prevent. (Kustanaev in Kaskabasov 2010, 7). Kazakhs also believed that Albastї pulled out the lungs of a woman in labour, and threw them into water, which eventually caused her death (Divaev in Kaskabasov 2010, 7).
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