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Akhmet Baitursynuly
Life and works of Kazakh writers...

25.03.2016 10303

Life and works of Kazakh writers

Life and works of Kazakh writers -

Makatayev Mukagali

Mukagali Makatayev was born on February 9, 1931 in the village Karasaz Narynkolskogo (nowadays Raimbek) the region of Almaty area. Karasaz's reserved beauty became a source of poetic gift of Mukagali.

Karasaz - Makatayev's small homeland that helped him in the most difficult minutes of his life. It gave him wings and foreordained a destiny of a poet.

The poet’s full name - Mukhametkali, but since the childhood he was tenderly called Mukagali, considering that a load of responsibility (it is hard to bear a name of Prophet) can complicate the child’s life. He was the first of three children of his young parents Suleymen and Nagiman. His father was a modest and hard-working person, one year before the war became the chairman of collective farm. Makatayev's childhood was rosy. Makatayev loved the world of his childhood and was sincerely sick for it. And many images of his poetry were inspired by memories of the childhood.

War changed everything in Mukagali's life. He was 10 when his father went off to war, and all difficulties came upon the teenager. As all boys of war generation, Makatayev early grew to maturity, having realized that in the house where there were only women and children, he had to become a man, to protect his family and bear responsibility.

Makatayev's father died in the war. And since that time Mukagali never forgot that he had no right simply to go out and disappear. Perhaps, right in that moment he understood immortality embodied later in his poems.

When Makatayev was 14 he was very keen on poetry. He got inspiration from world around and from books. Mukagali liked very much to read works of Abay, Auezov, Seyfullin, Musrepov. Perfectly knew Russian, excitedly read Russian literature, especially Pushkin, Yesenin's poetry, Block. From foreign literature he was interested in Goethe, Dumas, Hugo, Byron, Dreiser, Stendhal, but preferred more Balzac, London nd Shakespeare. Makatayev in one of his letters admits: «Yes, I love literature. There is nothing above it for me».

In 1948 Makatayev graduated from boarding school in Narynkol. He entered institutes successfully several times: on philological faculty of KAZGU, then in institute of foreign languages and again in KAZGU, but this time on law faculty.

Makatayev married in 1949. Then six children come into the world. Mukagali Makatayev worked in aul as a teacher of Russian at school, a correspondent of the regional newspaper. After family moving in 1962 to Almaty his professional activity was closely connected with literature: worked as an announcer on the Kazakh radio, a journalist in the Sotsialistik Kazakstan newspaper, an employee of the Zhuldyz magazine, the head of council on affairs of youth in the Union of writers.

Despite change of external circumstances, Makatayev was constant in the main thing - selfless love to poetry. He wrote verses all the time and was often published on pages of magazines and newspapers. Since 1962 till 1976 eight poetic collections of the poet went out.

During twenty five years of work in literature Makatayev wrote more than 1 000 poems. He became the author of such poems, as Ilyich («Ильич»), Raimbek! Raimbek! («Раимбек! Раимбек!»), A mountain eagle(«Горный орел»), Escapee («Беглец»), Moor («Мавр»), and also stories, play Farewell, love («Прощай, любовь»), articles on modern Kazakh poetry. Translated the first part of «The divine comedy» by Dante. Was engaged in translation of works by W.Shakespeare, U.Uitmen, East poets, Russian poets.

Margulan Alkey

Alkey Margulan – a Kazakh archeologist, Ph.D., orientalist, historian, theorist of literature, fine art expert, academician of Academy of Science of Kazakh SSR, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Kazakh SSR, the founder of the Kazakh School of Archeology and a prominent scholar in many fields.

He began his career as a teacher. In 1929, after graduation he worked as the secretary of the terminological commission of Commissariat of Education KASSR.

From 1931 to 1936 —graduate student, intern and researcher at the State Academy of the History of Material Culture.

From 1936 to 1938 — intern researcher at the Institute of History of Material Culture of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

From 1946 to 1985 — the head of the department, the senior researcher at the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan.

The result of this research in the cultural history of the Kazakh people was dissertation defense on the “Epic Tales of the Kazakh people” in 1945. Moreover, the objects of his studies were monuments of ancient architecture. He discovered unique archeological monuments of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age: Begazy, Sanguyr, Belasar and so on.

The result of his archeological research in Central Kazakhstan was the summary of the fundamental monographs: “The ancient culture of Central Kazakhstan”, “Begazy-Dandybay culture of Central Kazakhstan” and “History of the Kazakh SSR” in five volumes. Since the mid-50s, under his leadership were collected materials about outstanding Kazakh scientist Sh. Valikhanov. Alkey was the editor and composer

Alkey was the editor and compiler of the Sh. Valikhanov’s essays and author of numerous monographs about him.

He successfully combined scientific and teaching activities with organizational work. For many years he was the head of Coordinating Council of the ethnogenesis of the Kazakh people, the Scientific Council of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, the specialized council for doctoral dissertations. A.Margulan published more than 300 scientific and popular publications.

Balkybek Amirkhan

Balkybek Amirkhan was born on March 19, 1969 in Lenin collective farm, the Zhetisaysky area, Southern Kazakhstan.

In 1989-1990 worked as the correspondent in the regional newspaper «Osken onir». In 1995 graduated from the Faculty of Journalismthe of Al-Farabi Kazakh national university.

In 1995-2000 worked in such republican printing editions, as «Parasat», «Zhas Alash» and «Ana tili». Worked as a manager in department of literary criticism, in the Kazak adebieti newspaper. During the last years he was an editor of the Dala men kala newspaper

His poems were published in such collective editions as «Auldan ushkan akkular», «Tolkynan tolkyn tauady», «Zhas akyndar poeziyasynyn antologuiyasy».

The author of books – «Metamorphosis» (1996), Zhazushy publishing house, «Syngan saulenyn shagylysuy» (2001) in the Otyrar library series, «Kaskyr kudai bolgan kez» (2008).

The owner of the president grant of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1997-1998.

Passed away on April 8, 2014

Bayzakov Issa

Issa Bayzakov - an outstanding Kazakh poet improvisator - was born on October 3 in Ulguli village of the Irtysh area. Since the childhood Issa was surrounded by the atmosphere of creativity thanks to original interest and love to art of his father Bayzak and mother Gaziza. Issa's mother died when he was 9 years old, then the boy was brought up by his grandmother Zhanbala, a remarkable singer and a storyteller.

Among his peers he was a recognized leader, was allocated with dexterity, quickness, a pungency of wit. Riding became his passion. There was nobody equal to him. Issa's peers admired him, tried to imitate and be resemble in everything.

Youth of the poet was during the first imperialistic war which Russia was involved in too. Issa, his father and brother Mussa were called for rear works. They came back home only after autocracy crash.

After the war the new stage in the spiritual development begins for Issa. He learned Arab and Russian writing, engaged in self-education, took active part in public life of the area.

In 1920 he wrote a play "Volostnoy" that had a big success in the autumn of 1921 in a building of a Kyzylzhar mosque.

In 1921 Issa studied in Semipalatinsk. After returning to a native aul he inspired young people to build a school.

In 1920-s Issa Bayzakov was one of the first organizers of the Kazakh national theater. He was an actor, a singer, an improvisator, a musician. He played main roles in M. Auezov's early plays "Enlik-Kebek" and "Baibishe tokal", staged at the first Kazakh national theater.

Issa Bayzakov was the author of a number of the epic works: "Beauty Kuralay" (1925), «The fairy tale of the shepherd» (1926), «In the foothills of Altay» (1939), the "Caucasus" (1941), «Ak bope» (1945). The ideals of humanity, good and justice are sung in them.

In days of war Bayzakov acted as the singer propagandist, singing the poems got by patriotic pathos. During the same period he also fruitfully worked as a composer.

I.Bayzakov's creativity was investigated in works of the Kazakh literary critics such as E.Ismailov, M. Hasenova, R. Berdibayev.

Issa Bayzakov died in 1946.

Auezov Murat

Murat Mukhtarovich Auezov - a Kazakh public figure, cultural specialist, PhD in Philology, a member of the creative Unions of writers, cinematographers, a member of the PEN club of Kazakhstan, an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Chinese National Republic.

Murat Auezov was born on January 1, 1943, in the village Merke of Dzhambul area.

He is an illegitimate (but officially recognized) son of the classic of the Kazakh literature Mukhtar Auezov and Fatima Gabitova, the widow of Ilyas Zhansugurov.

In the period 1959-1965 Murat studied in Institute of Oriental languages (Moscow State University) on the chair of the Chinese philology; passed Ph.D. defense; the philologist-orientalist.

Worked as a research associate in Alma-Ata Institute of philosophy and right of Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR.

In 1990 he was elected to the post of the People's Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of Kazakh SSR.

In December, 1992 among the first ambassadors of independent Kazakhstan he was appointed an ambassador of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Chinese National Republic, now has a diplomatic rank of the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Worked as the managing director of National library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a President of Soros-Kazakhstan fund, the editor-in-chief of the Kazakhfilm film studio.

Since 2008 - a President of «Mukhtar Auezov's Fund» public fund.

Cochairman of Azamat party.

Kanapyanov Bakhytzhan

Bakhytzhan Musakhanuli Kanapyanov - a Kazakhstani poet, writer, poet and a lyricist – was born on October 4, 1951 in Kokshetau, a descendant of Genghis Khan.

He was a winner of the Kazakhstan's boxing cup for two consecutive years (1968–1969). Liquidator of Chernobyl disaster. Member of the Russian and the Kazakh PEN clubs.

Kanapyanov writes in Kazakh and Russian and is widely recognised for multicultural approach. Kanapyanov collected folk songs from across Kazakhstan and translated them into Russian, often revising and adopting them. One of the most famous translation – is the Kazakh national epic song Kyz-Zhibek. His translations into Russian include Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet, French poet Paul Valéry and others.

Among Kazakh poets translated and adopted by Bakhytzhan are Abay Kunanbayev, Zhambyl Zhabayev, Kenen Azerbayev, Shakarim Kudayberdiuli, Magjan Jumabayev and others.

In 1984 he became the editor-in-chief of one of the largest publishing house in Kazakhstan Zhalyn. He kept this position until the year 1991 when the USSR, communist party and all censoring mechanisms collapsed. It allowed him to founder first independent publishing house in Kazakhstan – Zhibek Zholy (Silk Road). Now Zhibek Zholy is famous for its ongoing support to young authors and especially poets in Kazakhstan, Russia and worldwide. Zhibek Zholy publishes a lot on education, folklore, philosophy, linguistics and history studies.

Kanapyanov's books were translated in more than 20 languages, including English, Finnish, Georgian, German, Korean, Polish, Malay, Yakut.

Kamzabekuly Dikhan

Kamzabekuly Dikhan (1966, South Kazakhstan region) – Doctor of Philology science, professor, corresponding member of National academy of science of Kazakhstan. Graduated from Kazakh state pedagogical institute named after Abai.

In 1990-1996 – the research associate of Institute of literature and art named after Mukhtar Auezov of National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan.

In 1996-2000 – the head of the department of the Kazakh literature of the Euroasian university named after L.N. Gumilev. In 2000-2001 – the senior research associate of ENU named after L.N. Gumilev.

In 2001-2004 – the head of the department of languages and literature at the Kazakh national academy of music.

2004-2005 – the director of Humanitarian institute of the Euroasian national university named after L.N. Gumilev.

2006-2008 – the director of Institute of culture and spiritual development “Alash” of the Euroasian national university named after L.N. Gumilev.

Since 2011 – the vice rector for strategic development and postgraduate education of the Euroasian national university named after L.N. Gumilev.

Winner of the State youth award “Daryn” (2000).

The owner of a grant of the President of Kazakhstan (1994-2000, since 2007).

The owner of a breastplate named fater Y. Altynsarin of MAUN RK (2005).

In 2005 he has received an official message of thanks from the Head of state N. A. Nazarbayev.official message of thanks from the Head of state N. A. Nazarbayev.

Kemengerov Koshmukhamed

Kemengerov Koshmukhamed was the Kazakh writer, the playwright, the literary critic, the scientist and public figure. Koshmukhamed Kemengerov was born on July 15, 1896 in the territory of the present Bayanaul region of the Pavlodar area. In 1910 his father Duysebay-kazhy together with family got over to the Omsk region. The father of future writer was a competent person, aspired, that children got a good education, and the greatest expectations assigned to son Koshmukhamed. Koshke as he was called at home, studied at Omsk parish school, and then terminated two classes of veterinary and medical assistant's school.

In 1913 Koshke Kemengerov entered the Omsk agricultural school, worked, decided to continue education and in 1919 entered the Omsk polytechnic Institute. In 1920 he was enlisted on zoo and veterinary faculty of the agricultural institute. He looked for his place in the world in different fields of activity, but all these years he kept writing. In 1924 after a third year in the Institute Kemengerov was transferred to medical faculty of Central Asian (nowadays Tashkent) State University.

In 1924-1930 gave lectures on the Kazakh language and literature at the same University and in the military college. Kemengerov managed to combine teaching at the University with active public work. He participated in work of the "Alka" literary circle, edited the "Dignity" magazine in Tashkent, and took part in the "Ak zhol" newspaper edition. The same years he studied postgraduate study.

In October, 1930 together with Mukhtar Auezov he was committed to prison in Almaty on forged charge. After a 2 year imprisonment he was banished to Ukraine from where he returned only in 1935. Then he worked in the Sharbakkolsky region of the Omsk region as the inspector in a public health department.

On June 7, 1937 he was arrested again and in November he was sentenced to supreme penalty - execution by a firing squad.

on August 13, 1957 Kemengerov Koshke was rehabilitated in the absence of crime structure. A school in Bayanaul, and a street in Astana are called after his name.

K.Kemengerov's literary activity began in 1915. When Kemengerov was nineteen years old he printed his selection of poetic works in the Aykap magazine: own poems, translations of Russian poets. Among them there are translations into Kazakh A.Pushkin's poems "Prorok" (Prophet) which admire philologists not only with careful attitude to the original, but also with proximity to the size of Pushkin’s verse.

In stories "Na doroge" (On the road, 1923), "Kazakhskiye zhencshiny" (The Kazakh women, 1927), "Duriya" (1927), "Smeloye serdce" (Courageous heart, 1927) are about unequal position of the Kazakh women, a difficult life of the working people. In plays "Zolotoy persten" (Gold ring, 1923), "Vzyatochniki" (Bribe takers), "Staroye ucheniye" (The old doctrine, 1927) Kemengerov exposes social injustice, abuses and ignorance of local feudal lords. In due time these drama works were put on amateur scenes, in art circles and had big success. In 1926 the first Kazakh theater opened with his play "Zolotoy persten" (Gold ring, 1923).

K.Kemengerov wrote works on problems of literary criticism, linguistics, and ethnography. Only in 1924-1929 he published five books, tens stories and articles.

Kemengerov Koshmukhamed was known also as a translator. Being nineteen-year old he translated A.Pushkin's poem "Prorok" (Prophet). Kemengerov wrote and translated articles "Zhizn I tvorchestvo Abaya" (Life and creativity of Abay, 1918), "Iz istorii kazakhov" (From history of Kazakhs, 1924), "O culture I znachenii yazykovedov" (About culture and value of philologists, 1925), "O nekotorykh slovakh" (About some words, 1926), the article "O khudozhestvennoi literature" (About fiction, 1927).

The special place in Kemengerov's works is dedicated to problems of language, its development and a status in new conditions. Kemengerov Koshmukhamed imposed high requirements to language studying; he thought that the person studying foreign language, should first of all know the native language well. Kemengerov himself besides the Kazakh and Russian languages, had a good command of German, English and Arab. Kemengerov Koshmukhamed is the author of "The Kazakh-Russian dictionary" (1925), "The textbook for the Europeans studying the Kazakh language" (1928-1929), etc.

Kudaiberdiyev Shakarim

Shakarim Kudaiberdiev - philosopher and thinker, scholar and poet - was born in the foothills of the Shyngystau in 1858 in Kenbulak, Chingiz district of Semipalatinsk. Today it is the Abay district of the East Kazakhstan region.

Shakarim was born in the Tobykty family, headed by Kunanbai, father of the great Kazakh poet and enlightener Abay. Father of Shakarim Kudaiberdy was born from Kunke, senior wife of Kunanbai. Shakarim and Abay were cousins. Shakarim lost his father when he was 7 years old and he was raised by his grandfather Kunanbay. The grandfather loved his grandson very much. Shakarim had grown up in rich pastures. The talented teenager was a favorite of Abay and on his advice Shakarim started his first experiments with poetry.

Poetry captured all essence of Shakarim and his works reflected the views of nature, peace, religion and other social phenomena. In the libraries of Istanbul and Mecca Shakarim studied the legacy of the great scientists and philosophers.

Shakarim knew very well the works of the Russian and foreign poets and writers and absorbed the spirit of the folk poetry from childhood. He loved very much works by Lev Tolstoi, Alexander Pushkin and Byron. He studied the works of scientists and philosophers from Democritus to Newton.

In the “Three Truths” work, which Shakarim had been creating for 30 years, he enters into an argument with Darwin and Rousseau and gets delighted by Archimedes and Plato. This book became a priceless heirloom, which represents the pinnacle of philosophical thought in Kazakhstan in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. Shakarim introduced the concept of “Science of conscience”. A magnificent connoisseur of Abay’s creative life, the successor of his traditions, he was deeply imbued with his conceptual ideas, developing them, enriching the vocabulary of philosophical category of the “science of conscience”. In all his works the problem of conscience was becoming the main theme.

The knowledge of the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish languages opened him the world of classical oriental poetry by Ferdowsi, Nizami, Fuzuli, Hafez. The pinnacle of the translation creativity of Shakarim was the “Leili and Majnun” poem, written explanation of the eastern parables. The poem went beyond the scope of the translated works. Scientists, researchers and professionals believe that it is the original and independent work. The story was adapted for the Kazakh reader. The lyrical narrative was interwoven with the Kazakh ballad in terms of its lyrical rhythm. A beautiful, melodic language, apt epithets, metaphors, a fascinating storyline made this poem a masterpiece of lyric poetry with an epic scale.

By autumn of 1931 the campaign of the Soviet government to confiscate property of prosperous farmers had come to an end. The collectivisation of agriculture in the Semipalatinsk region, and indeed everywhere, turned into cattle plague and famine. By this time Shakarim, renouncing the world, became increasingly reclusive and spent most of his time in his winter quarters. The new government had eliminated the educated, respectable people who could be leaders of the steppe. Having exterminated the most prominent, influential people and the elders, the new Soviet regime also destroyed the most enlightened, educated members of the nation, those who are popularly called “the salt of the earth”.

Shakarim was a versatile and educated person and knew several languages. In Semipalatinsk, he engaged in music, played the violin, accordion, took lessons in drawing, kept race horses and hunted with eagles. He was barely 20 years old when he was nominated for a vote as a candidate and was elected to the county governors. All sorts of litigations had become a school of life for him.

Numerous complaints revealed to him the injustice of the world. Neither his mind, nor heart could accept the colonial policy of the tsarist government. According to historians Shakarim was at the center of social and political events that are closely related to the activities of Alikhan Bukeykhanov

There is information about the invitation of Shakarim to the Second all-Kazakh Congress, held on December 5-13, 1917 in Orenburg. At the National Congress the Kazakh intelligentsia had reached the decision to establish the Alashorda government. Shakarim Kudaiberdiyev was one of the delegates from the Semipalatinsk region. The leader of the Alashorda Alikhan Bukeykhanov signed over 28 invitations to the most influential people of all regions and Shakarim was among them.

More than a century has passed before people started talking about Shakarim openly. On April 3, 1995 the Prosecutor-General’s Office of Kazakhstan decided to consider Shakarim Kudayberdiyev rehabilitated and he became subject to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan governing the Rehabilitation of Victims of political repressions effective from April 14, 1993.

The son of Shakarim, Akhat remembers that his father was handsome, well-built, tall and with delicate features. His expressive eyes always radiated goodness and light.

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